Dark Matter Freeze-out in a Matter Dominated Universe
The universe has evolved through several phases as its various constituents dominated its energy content. Candidate dark matter particles may have undergone freeze-out during any such phase. While the standard freeze-out scenarios have been explored during the radiation-dominated era, and more recently during scalar field decay, this work extends the study of dark matter freeze-out to a potential early period during which the universe is matter-dominated and its evolution adiabatic. Decoupling during an adiabatic matter dominated era changes the freeze-out dynamics, since the Hubble rate is parametrically different for matter and radiation domination. Furthermore, for successful Big Bang Nucleosynthesis the state dominating the early universe energy density must decay, this dilutes (or repopulates) the dark matter. As a result, the masses and couplings required to match the observed dark matter relic density can differ significantly from radiation dominated freeze-out.